There are two different options for stud welding. One is capacitor discharge stud welding, often know as CD stud welding or projection welding. Capacitor discharge welding using weld studs, which look very similar to threaded or unthreaded bolts.
For use with project welding, there are projection weld studs. These also look somewhat like bolts and weld studs, but they have an extra projection on the bottom. This is a tip that extends from the bottom or the end of the shank of the weld projection.
How It Works
Think of the bottom of the projection weld studs as the ignition, in fact; it is actually called the ignition tip. During the welding process, both the workpieces and the stud are heated through an electrical arc. The ignition tip melts, providing the molten metal that is then used to create the bond when the weld stud is pushed down into the molten material.
This entire process will take approximately 0.06 seconds with an experienced operator. In many cases, the process includes the use of a ferrule, which is a ceramic ring that holds the molten pool in place and also provides a shield for the weld. This ferrule is removed after the stud welding process is completed.
Ensuring the best quality projection weld studs, stud gun and power supply will provide the best welds. Other factors will also come into play, but overall the process is not complicated even for those not trained as welders.
Depending on the type of material of the weld studs, the workpiece and surface coatings that may be on the workpiece, different settings may be required for the process.
Changing the settings for weld quality may include adjusting welding current, force, time as well as accommodating for surface coatings or different materials that may impact the process.
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